Standards - Scope and Sequence

Subject:

Studying Science

Breakdown

Skills and Methods

Students will be able to:

• Identify and use Science skills
• Describe and use Scientific Method
• Explain and design a scientific experiment.
• Distinguish between opinion, Fact, Theory
• Apply Science, skills, and safety to everyday life

Summary of Concepts:

• In their study of nature scientist observe, infer, estimate, measure, predict, classify, hypothesize, record, organize, and analyze.
• Scientist conduct experiments to collect data and test hypothesis
• Scientific facts, laws, and theories may change as new data or knowledge develops.
• Scientist use models to represent the parts of nature they study.

Breakdown

Measuring with the Scientific Units

Students will be able to:

• Identify SI base units and prefixes
• Measure common objects using SI Units
• Compare Mass and Weight

Summary of Concepts:

• Scientist measure everything including with standard SI units.
• Mass is the amount of matter contained within a specific volume/shape and is not the same a weight
• Density is the amount of mass contained in a specific volume.

Breakdown

Graphing Data

Students will be able to:

• dentify various types of graphs and their use
• Explain how data can be plotted on different styles of graphs
• Make a graph using a specific data set

Summary of Concepts:

• different graphs are used in order to best explain the data being collected.
• analysis of data determines the type of graph in order to communicate the characteristic of data.

Breakdown

Studying the Earth

Students will be able to:

• Identify the 4 primary parts of the Earth studied by Earth Scientist
• Explain each of the spheres (Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere, and Biosphere
• Infer how living things are dependent on the nonliving components of the Earth

Summary of Concepts:

• The Biosphere extends from ocean to land to atmosphere.
• living things depend on the nonliving parts of the Earth.

Subject:

Topography and Geography

Breakdown

Earths Surface

Students will be able to:

• Locate the continents, oceans and seas.
• Name and Describe four major landforms
• Explain how biomes how biomes indicate the distribution of life on the surface.
• Map a route through the major bodies of water.

Summary of Concepts:

• The surface of the Earth is composed of land masses (continents) and oceans and seas.
• Types of landforms comprise plateaus, valleys, canyons, mountains and plains.

Breakdown

Mapping the Earth

Students will be able to:

• Explain how longitude and latitude are used to map Earth’s Surface.
• Compare different map projections
• Interpret the symbols in a map legend.
• Locate a position on a map.

Summary of Concepts:

• The surface can be mapped with latitude and longitude with the equator as mid point for latitude and the Prime meridian as reference for longitude.
• The intersect of Latitude and Longitude provide point location.
• A flat map showing the earth is called a projection.
• Maps contain a scale to show relative distance to the real world and the map. Symbols represent features such as roads, buildings, etc.

Breakdown

Topographic Maps

Students will be able to:

• Describe what a topographic map shows about the Earth’s Surface.
• Explain how contour lines indicate the surface elevation.
• Interpret lines on a topographic map.
• Calculate average slope.

Summary of Concepts:

• Topographic maps show the elevation of the surface.
• Contour lines connect points of the same elevation.
• Contour lines can also represent slope or steepness. Slope is calculated using Rise over Run.

Subject:

Studying Science

Breakdown

Layers of the Earth

Students will be able to:

• Describe the crust, mantle, and core.
• Describe the structure of the lithosphere.
• Explain why matter moves within the Asthenosphere.
• Make a model of the layers of the Earth.

Summary of Concepts:

• The Crust, Mantle, and Core are classified by Chemical composition.
• The Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, Outer Core, and inner Core are also classified by physical properties.
• The crust of the ocean basins tend to be higher density than the continental crust.
• Convection causes a circular flow in the Asthenosphere.

Breakdown

Studying the Earths Interior

Students will be able to:

• Identify two types of seismic waves.
• Describe the movement of two seismic waves.
• Explain how Earth Scientists make inferences about the Earth’s Core.
• Infer the characteristics of an object through indirect observation.

Summary of Concepts:

• Scientist use indirect observation from seismic waves generated by Earthquakes to give information on the Earth’s interior.
• The two primary seismic waves produce by an Earthquake are P and S waves.
• The composition and density of the Earth’s layers effect the speed of seismic waves.
• The boundary between the lithosphere and Asthenosphere was discovered by studying seismic wave behavior.

Subject:

Time and Change

Breakdown

Earths History

Students will be able to:

• Describe the origin and early history o the Earth.
• Describe Processes of change on the Earth’s Surface.
• infer how different sedimentary rocks form.
• Use a diagram to communicate the process of change to the Earth’s surface.

Summary of Concepts:

• Geologic changes occur on a different scale relative to that of humans.
• Geologic time for Earth is estimated at 4.6 billion years.
• The Sun, Earth and other planets formed from the coalescing of a spinning cloud of matter in space.
• It is calculated that approximately 1 billion years of cooling for the Earth to have formed oceans, continents, and an atmosphere of oxygen.
• Over the last 2 billion years weathering, erosion, deposition among other processes the patterns of the Earth’s surface have formed.
• Evidence of the development of life can be found as fossils in the rock record.

Breakdown

Geologic Time Scale

Students will be able to:

• Explain how Scientist determine the relative age of rock layers.
• List the order of event that could lead to an unconformity.
• Describe the divisions of the Geologic Time Scale.
• Infer the relationship of the layering of rock and the geologic time scale.

Summary of Concepts:

• Sedimentary rocks form such that the oldest can normal be found below the younger layers. This helps Geologist determine relative age and events.
• Unconformities occur where sediment layers have eroded away or the sedimentary process has stopped.
• Geologic time is divided into 4 main Eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic)

Subject:

Plate Tectonics

Breakdown

Drifting Continents

Students will be able to:

• Describe how the continental landmasses have moved over time.
• Explain the reasoning for the continental drift theory.
• Make a model of the super continent Pangea.

Summary of Concepts:

• Alfred Wegner proposed the first Scientific theory on crustal movement called Continental Drift.
• Pangea was a supercontinent composed of the current continents 250 million years ago.
• Continental Drift is supported by evidence in the rock record an surface.

Breakdown

Theory of Plate Tectonics

Students will be able to:

• Describe the evidence and process for sea floor spreading.
• Identify the types of plate boundaries.
• Explain what happens when plates collide.
• Infer from observation of a large surface feature the type of plate boundary process.

Summary of Concepts:

• Seafloor spreading occur along the mid-ocean spreading ridges of the world oceans.
• The theory of Plate Tectonics states the entire lithosphere is made of moving plates.
• There are seven major plates an several minor plates classified as continental or oceanic.
• Convergent, Divergent, and Transform boundaries create specific landforms.

Breakdown

physics of Plate Movement

Students will be able to:

• Describe how convection occurs in the mantle.
• Explain how convection would move a tectonic plate.
• Explain models of how plates move as a result of convection.
• Compare and contrast models of convection moving plates.

Summary of Concepts:

• Convection in the mantle and Asthenosphere cause the plates to move.
• According to models proposed by Convection, the plates are moved by or are part of the Convection cell.

Subject:

Movement of the Crust

Breakdown

Folding and Faulting

Students will be able to:

• Identify three types o stress that deform crustal material.
• Describe three types of folding.
• Distinguish between normal, reverse, and lateral faults.
• Make a model to demonstrate the effect of stress on different materials.

Summary of Concepts:

• Compression, tension and shear are 3 types of stress that deform the crust.
• The crust responds to stress by either folding or faulting.
• Folding can produce monoclines, synclines, or anticlines.
• Normal, Reverse, an Lateral faults occur depending on the direction of stress that fractures the rock.

Breakdown

Mountains and Plateaus

Students will be able to:

• Identify 4 mountain building processes.
• Describe the difference and similarities of folded or fault block mountains.
• Relate mountain building to different plate boundaries.
• Classify mountains based on how and where they developed.

Summary of Concepts:

• Most if not all mountains are the result of plate movement.
• Compression tends to produce folded mountains.
• Tensional stress tends to form fault block mountains.
• Plutonic Mountains are developed from the upward movement of molten rock usually from mantle origin or compressional heating.
• Volcanic mountains are produced when molten material breaches the surface and begins cooling from flows or eruptions.
• Plateaus can be formed by mountain building processes or erosional events.

Subject:

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Breakdown

Earthquakes

Students will be able to:

• Describe conditions that occur during an Earthquake.
• Explain the difference between the epicenter and focal point of an Earthquake.
• Compare each of the waves produced in an Earthquake event.
• Infer the minimum number of Seismic stations necessary to locate and Earthquake.

Summary of Concepts:

• Earthquakes occur when rocks break and release energy in the form of seismic waves.
• Focal point of an Earthquakes is the place in the crust where the rock breaks. The epicenter is the surface point about the focus.
• The strength of an Earthquake is measured by the amount of energy released calculated by the Richter Scale.

Breakdown

Earthquake Evidence

Students will be able to:

• Describe some features produced by an Earthquake.
• Discuss how Earthquake damaged is produced.
• Explain what might cause a Tsunami.
• Infer possible building methods that can limit Earthquake damage.

Summary of Concepts:

• Earthquakes can cause vertical or horizontal changes along the fault of the Earthquake epicenter.
• Tsunamis are the surface expression in the ocean resulting from Earthquakes either in the ocean basin or continental margin.

Breakdown

Volcanoes

Students will be able to:

• Describe how volcanoes form.
• Explain the process or volcanic eruption. *Compare the 3 types o volcanic forms.
• Make a model of a volcano

Summary of Concepts:

• Volcanoes are the expression of molten rock releasing at the Earth’s surface and produce a specific and recognizable land form.
• The type of volcano that forms is the result of the magma type. Thick magma produces violent eruptions, Flowing lava produces shield volcanoes, extremely gaseous magma produces cinder cones.

Subject:

Earth Chemistry

Breakdown

Structure of Matter

Students will be able to:

• Describe the structure of an atom
• Explain the distinct properties of elements
• Compare and contrast the 3 types of chemical bonds.
• Explain a chemical formula

Summary of Concepts:

• All matter is composed of one or more elements and results in specific physical and chemical properties.
• Every atom of an element is composed of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.
• The number of Protons determines the element.
• Isotopes of the same element contain a different number of Neutrons.
• Atoms of different elements bond together based on Ionic, covalent, or metallic bonds
• Matter can be found as either elemental, compounds, or mixtures.

Breakdown

Energy and changes to Matter

Students will be able to:

• Give examples of a physical change versus a chemical change.
• Explain the difference between a physical change and chemical change.
• Explain what happens to the molecules of a substance based on a chemical or physical change.

Summary of Concepts:

• Physical changes occur in matter based on its physical properties.
• A Chemical change occurs when bonds are broken and new molecules, compounds are produced resulting in a new material.
• Matter physically exists on Earth as a solid, liquid or gas at norma pressure and temperature. A change in this state o matter is based on the loss or gain of heat energy.

Breakdown

Earths Elements

Students will be able to:

• Describe the organization of the Periodic Table.
• List the elements most common in the crust, ocean, and atmosphere.
• Deduce the reason for the organization of elements in the periodic table.
• Communicate the significance of information provided for each element in the periodic table.

Summary of Concepts:

• All elements are arranged in a systematic manner to explain their various properties, similarities and differences.
• The Earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere all contain certain quantities of specific elements.

Subject:

Minerals

Breakdown

Mineral formation and structure

Students will be able to:

• Define a mineral.
• Define the chemical composition of mineral groups.
• Distinguish between minerals and non-minerals.
• Make models o mineral crystal systems.

Summary of Concepts:

• A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a specific chemical makeup and crystalline shape.
• Most minerals are formed when magma begins to cool and specific chemistry precipitate from the cooling magma.
• Most minerals can be classified into groups base on chemistry and crystal shape.

Breakdown

Mineral Identification

Students will be able to:

• List the properties of minerals.
• Identify special properties of minerals.
• Communicate the differences of cleavage and fracture.
• Measure the Hardness of a mineral.

Summary of Concepts:

• Minerals ave 6 basic properties that help in their identification.
• Hardness is base on the Mohs hardness scale.
• Most rock are formed by minerals.

Breakdown

Uses of Minerals

Students will be able to:

• Describe the special use of Ores.
• List some common use of minerals.
• Distinguish between gems of precious and semi-precious minerals.
• Infer why minerals are not usually found in their elemental state.

Summary of Concepts:

• Most metals come from Ore that contain a specific amount of metal content.
• Some minerals are used in their original form.
• Gems are cut and polished minerals based on rarity and beauty to include hardness.

Subject:

Rock and Rock Cycle

Breakdown

Rocks

Students will be able to:

• Identify and classify the 3 types of rock.
• Explain the role of heat in the formation of rock material.
• Describe the main characteristics of Rocks
• Make a model or diagram showing or illustrating the rock cycle.

Summary of Concepts:

• The main types of rocks are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
• The rock cycle is a series of processes that produce rock or recycle rock material.
• Rocks can be identified by texture and grain size.

Breakdown

Igneous

Students will be able to:

• Name the 2 types of igneous rock based on occurrence.
• Explain how igneous rocks form.
• Classify igneous rocks based on characteristics.
• Infer the mineral makeup of igneous rocks.

Summary of Concepts:

• igneous rock forms from the cooking of magma.
• There are two types of igneous rock, Intrusive an Extrusive. The type depends on location of cooling, underground or at surface.
• The identification of igneous rock is base on texture and mineral occurrence.

Breakdown

Sedimentary

Students will be able to:

• Describe the 3 types of Sedimentary rock
• Identify and describe the 3 types of Sedimentary rocks.
• Compare and contrast the characteristics of Sedimentary rocks.
• Construct a model or diagram of the sedimentary process.

Summary of Concepts:

• When sediment settles an compacts along with the cementation process, sedimentary rock form.
• Layers, ripples, cracks, fossils are all common to to sedimentary rocks.
• Sedimentary rocks can be clastic, organic, or chemical depending on the origin of the rock or sediment material.

Breakdown

Metamorphic

Students will be able to:

• Identify common metamorphic rocks an their parent rock material.
• Describe the conditions necessary for metamorphic rock development.
• Compare and contrast the differences in the development of regional and contact metamorphism.
• Predict the formation of foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock.

Summary of Concepts:

• Heat and Pressure can change any rock type into a metamorphic rock.
• Both contact and regional forces can produce a variety of metamorphic rocks based on parent material and the degree of temp and pressure.
• Metamorphic rocks are classified as foliated or non-foliated and can be Gneiss, Schist, Shale and Marble.

Subject:

Weathering and Soils

Breakdown

Weathering

Students will be able to:

• Describe the process of mechanical weathering.
• Describe the process of chemical weathering.
• Compare and contrast the types of weathering.
• Predict the rate of weathering based on rock and conditions.

Summary of Concepts:

• Mechanical weathering is the break down of rock by physical process.
• There are many processes of mechanical weathering based on climate, and location.
• Chemical weathering alters the chemical composition of a rock
• The causes of chemical weathering typically involves water or solutions that react with the rock material.

Breakdown

Soils

Students will be able to:

• List the properties of soils
• Explain the formation of new soils
• Compare the formation of soils in different areas based on rock material and weather.
• Make a model or diagram of a soil profile of a mature soil.

Summary of Concepts:

• Soil, is a mixture of parent rock, decayed plant and animal matter called humus and rock fragments.
• Soils have properties that can be measured to include particle size and shape, fertility and acid level.
• A soil profile shows the distinct layers, or horizons present. Mature soils tend to have 3 layers or horizons.
• Soils are essential or the survival of plants and other living organisms.

Breakdown

World Soil Types

Students will be able to:

• Describe the 7 types o world soils.
• Identify soils by geographic location and climate.
• Differentiate the seven types of world soils.
• Construct a chart showing the soils by primary characteristics.

Summary of Concepts:

• Soil is classifie by mineral and humus composition and the environment where the soil was formed.
• There are 7 different primary types of soils based on geographic location and climate. Each soil type can be further classified based on the layers and materials in the layers.

Subject:

Forces of Erosion

Breakdown

Gravity and Erosion

Students will be able to:

• Explain the difference between erosion an deposition.
• Name the agents of erosion and the constant of gravity.
• Predict what conditions lead to the occurrence of mass movement,
• Compare the different types of Mass Movement.

Summary of Concepts:

• Weathered materials are eroded by the action of water, wind, Ice and Gravity. When the materials stop moving the are deposited.
• Gravity is a constant pull on materials and can cause loose materials to creep, slump, mudflow and landslides.

Breakdown

Water Erosion

Students will be able to:

• Describe the formation of a river or river basin.
• Relate the stages of river basin development and erosion.
• Classify wave formation based on shoreline.
• Compare and contrast wave and stream erosion.

Summary of Concepts:

• Water is by far the most significant erosional force
• Rivers are classified based on certain criteria. Young, cutting deep, mature meandering, old with cutoff oxbow lakes.
• When the water in a river carrying a load of sediment slows down, it deposits the load. which can develop some specific surface features.
• Waves erode along the edges of the continents and create some distinct landforms or beaches.

Breakdown

Ice Erosion

Students will be able to:

• Explain the formation of Glaciers
• Describe the process of Ice Erosion.
• Classify landforms based on either glacial erosion or glacial deposition.

Summary of Concepts:

• Glaciers form from an accumulation of massive amounts o snow both in valleys and continents.
• Ice Erosion is a mechanical process and can form a variety of landforms.
• Melting glaciers leave behind deposits that indicate the degree of advancement or valley/mountain erosion.

Breakdown

Wind Erosion

Students will be able to:

• Describe the conditions in which you would find wind erosion
• Explain the process of sand grain movement based on wind and wind speed
• Compare and contrast the process of abrasion vs deflation.

Summary of Concepts:

• Small particles (sand, dust, etc.) can be mobilized by the wind velocity. This movement can cause deflation and abrasion depending on the wind and location and rock type
• Particle movement tends to follow a leap frog type of action. smaller particles can be elevated into the atmosphere causing dust storms.

Subject:

Fossils in the Rock

Breakdown

Appearance of life

Students will be able to:

• Explain how fossils provide evidence for the development of life.
• Explain Natural Selection of species an extinctions.
• Describe how organisms are classified
• Classify organisms base on the 5 kingdoms in the classification system (Taxonomic System)

Summary of Concepts:

• Fossils help scientist reconstruct the past history of the Earth.
• Fossils help determine how life has developed and changed over time.
• Taxonomy puts life forms into groups based on body details and method of nutrition.
• Organisms in each of the 5 kingdoms share characteristics that align them to each other and different from the other kingdoms.

Breakdown

Fossil Record

Students will be able to:

• Describe the conditions necessary for an organism to be preserved and fossilized.
• Distinguish different types of fossils.
• Explain the difference in process or a mold or cast fossil.
• Infer the passage of geologic time based on fossils in the rock record.

Summary of Concepts:

• A fossil might develop if the organism is buried quickly after it dies.
• Fossils are organized into groups dependent on how they form.

Breakdown

Interpreting Fossils

Students will be able to:

• Explain the Law of Superposition.
• Determine the relative age of specific fossils.
• Describe the process of using isotopes to determine and age or time frame. Known as radiometric dating.
• Measure the absolute age of a rock layer using the concept of half life.

Summary of Concepts:

• The Law of Superposition helps determine relative age of rocks and the fossils contained in the rock.
• The absolute age of a rock or fossil can be calculated by using Radiometric dating.
• Isotopes have a constant rate of decay.

Breakdown

Life Through Geologic Time

Students will be able to:

• Name and describe some common organisms from each era of Geologic Time
• Explain why the PreCambrian has a poor rock record of life.
• Organize a chart the would show the major events in the history of the Earth and how that has impacted life.

Summary of Concepts:

• The PreCambrian Era saw a sudden explosion of life as evident of the high degree of diversity and complexity of fossils.
• Organisms with hard parts indicate natural selection an specialization during the Paleozoic.
• Mammal, birds, flowering plants and insects begin to appear during the Mesozoic as dinosaurs dominated.
• Dinosuars did not survive the end of the Mesozoic and mammals began to flourish in the Cenozoic.

Subject:

Fresh Water

Breakdown

Water and It’s Properties

Students will be able to:

• Describe the amount of fresh water on the surface of the Earth.
• Relate the structure of the water molecule to the physical and chemical properties.
• Explain why living organism rely on water.
• Generalize the water cycle to the amount of heat energy present.
• Make a model or diagram that follows the journey of a water molecule through the water cycle.

Summary of Concepts:

• Only 3 percent of the water on Earth is considered fresh water.
• Water is a polar molecule, as a result it gives water some special properties.
• Water is in constant motion
• The Sun is the heat engine that drives the water cycle.
• Precipitation is the source of fresh water

Breakdown

Students will be able to:

Surface Water

• Describe 3 ways in which fresh water can be found on the surface of the Earth
• Describe a watershed and its drainage system.
• Explain what life on the surface might be if water did not accumulate on the surface.

Summary of Concepts:

• Water on the surface is usually in constant motion in some form.
• A watershed is an area of the surface that directs water into streams and rivers.
• Glaciers move slowly downhill due to gravity.

Breakdown

Groundwater

Students will be able to:

• Explain what causes groundwater to form and the role that a drainage system
• Describe the movements of groundwater
• Predict what could cause a change in groundwater.

Summary of Concepts:

• Any water the filters into the ground is considered ground water. Porosity an permeability are important factors
• Groundwater travels through aquifers where layers of permeable rock or sediment.
• It can return to the surface as a result geysers, springs, artesian wells, even rivers and streams.

Subject:

Ocean Water

Breakdown

Properties of Ocean Water

Students will be able to:

• List substances that are dissolved in ocean water.
• Explain how a thermocline develops.
• Compare properties of ocean water to that of Fresh water
• Predict the solubility of salt in water at different temperatures

Summary of Concepts:

• Ocean water contains dissolved gases, salts, and traces of different elements.
• The boundary between warm surface water and colder water below is a thermocline.
• The density of ocean water varies with temperature and salinity. Water pressure increases with depth
• Organisms extract substances, like silica, from ocean water.

Breakdown

Ocean Currents

Students will be able to:

• Describe the major ocean current patterns in the Pacific and Atlantic.
• Identify two factors that drive ocean currents.
• Differentiate surface currents with deeper ocean currents.
• Predict the effects of the Coriolis force on the movement of ocean currents/Water

Summary of Concepts:

• The Coriolis force bends winds and cean currents.
• Wind driven surface currents form clockwise gyres in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise gyres in the Southern Hemisphere. Deep currents flow from the poles to the equator.
• The interaction between waves and the shoreline causes longshore currents, rip currents, and undertows/currents

Breakdown

Ocean Waves

Students will be able to:

• Explain how waves form in the ocean/water
• Identify the parts of an ocean wave (Trough and Crest, wavelength and height)
• Explain how to measure wave motion.
• Define how a water particle moves as a wave passes through a specific point.

Summary of Concepts:

• Wind friction pofuces surface waves.
• Ocean waves have a crest, trough, wave hieght and wavelength.
• Earthquakes on the ocean floor or near ocean faults can produce giant waves called Tsunamis

Breakdown

Tides

Students will be able to:

• Describe the effect of gravity on the Earth's water.
• Explain why tides change from day to day and season to season.
• Differentiate the types of daily tide patterns along with spring and neap tides.
• Predict the effects of tides on fishing or commerce such as tankers and cruise ships.

Summary of Concepts:

• The gravitational pull of the sun and moon causes tides.
• The changing positions of the Earth, sun and moon result in a monthly cycle of spring tdes and neap tides.

Subject:

Ocean Basins

Breakdown

Ocean Exploration

Students will be able to:

• Give examples of two oceanic research vessels.
• Describe five tools and methods used to study the ocean and the ocean floor. infer how to make a bahymetric map.

Summary of Concepts:

• Oceanic research vessels, such as HMS Challenger and Glomar Challenger made voyages to sutdy the world oceans.
• Some tools and methods of ocean research include scraping, coring, sonar, submersibles, and satellites.
• Mapmakers determned that shape of the ocean floor from depth measurements taken at different locations

Breakdown

Ocean Floor Topography

Students will be able to:

• Describe 3 features of the continental margin.
• Identify the major features of the ocean floor.
• Define and differentiate ocean trenches and ridges.
• Predict moion along underwater plate boundaries.

Summary of Concepts:

• The continental margins extend into the ocean, It has 3 regions called the continental shelf, slope, and rise. Submarine canyons cross the continental margin.
• Some features of the ocean flor include abyssal plains, ridges, seamounts, guyots, reefs, and atolls. At subductin zones, ocean trenches and volacanos form.

Breakdown

Life Zones of the Ocean

Students will be able to:

• Describe vertical and horisontal ocean life zones.
• Identify ocean resources.
• Speculate with evidece for the differences between various ocean life zones.
• Make a model or diagram of an ocean food web.

Summary of Concepts:

• Many environmental factors, such as sunlight, temperature, and pressure, effect ocean habitats.
Life zones in the ocean are divided horizontally and vertically.
• An ecosystem is an area in which organisms interact with each other and with their environment.
• People depend on the ocean for such reasources as food, minerals, salt, oil, and fresh water.

Subject:

The Atmosphere

Breakdown

The Blanket of Air

Students will be able to:

• Describe the ways that heat is transferred in air.
• Explain what happens to the sun's radiation as it passes to through the atmosphere to the surface.
• Explain how the density of air is related to air pressure at a specific elevation (s).
• Infer how changes in the nitrogen cycle and oxygen-carbon cycle would effect the composition of air

Summary of Concepts:

• The most common gases in air are nitrgen and oxygen.
• The oxygen-carbon cycle keeps carbon levels constant. Nitrogen fixation and deposition in the nitrogen cycle keep nitrogen levels constant.
• Air density is the number of molecules in a cerain volume of air. The pressure that air exerts on an area is air pressure and is based on altitude.
• Conduction and convection stransfer heat energy though air.

Breakdown

Structure of the Atmosphere

Students will be able to:

• Name the layers of the atmosphere from the surface to the highest considered layer.
• Explain how the atmosphere effects life on the earth.
• Differentiate and explain the magnetosphere from the ionosphere.
• Predict the changes that would occur on the earth if the atmospheric layers were suddenly stripped away.

Summary of Concepts:

• The most common gases in air are nitrgen and oxygen.
• The oxygen-carbon cycle keeps carbon levels constant. Nitrogen fixation and deposition in the nitrogen cycle keep nitrogen levels constant.
• Air density is the number of molecules in a cerain volume of air.
• The pressure that air exerts on an area is air pressure and is based on altitude.
• Conduction and convection stransfer heat energy though air.

Breakdown

The Changing Atmosphere

Students will be able to:

• Describe the early atmosphere of the earth.
• Explain how the atmosphere has changed through time.
• Distinguish our current atmosphere from that of the earth's early atmosphere.
• Predict the effects of pollution on the atmosphere.

Summary of Concepts:

• Hydrogen and helium made up the ancient atmosphere.
• Volcanic gases and oxygen released by primitive marine plants formed the early atmosphere.
• Important components of the atmosphere today are cabon dioxide, ozone, water vapor, and aerosols.
• The greenhouse effect , smog, and cerain pollutants are effecting atmospheric layers today.

Subject:

Water in the Atmosphere

Breakdown

Humidity

Students will be able to:

• Explain relative humidity Describe how humidity effects life.
• Explain the formation of dew and frost.
• Interpret data contained in a relative humidity table.

Summary of Concepts:

• The amount of water vapor in air determines the humidity. The percentage of water vapor in the air is called the relative humidity.
• Plants and animals have adapted differently to living in areas wth low or high humidity.
• Humidity can be measured by using a sling psychrometer to determine relative humidity from a standardized table

Breakdown

Clouds

Students will be able to:

• Explain the two ways that clouds can form.
• Describe the 3 basic cloud types.
• Predict the type of fog that forms in differnet conditions. Classify clouds by altitude.

Summary of Concepts:

• At the correct temperature and altitude, water vapor condenses to form clouds.
• Water vapor must collect on condensation nuclei for cloud droplets to form.
• Clouds classified by their appearance are Stratus, Cumulus, or Nimbus.
• Clouds are classified according to their height in the atmosphere by the prefixes Cirro for high, Alto for middle, and Strato for low.
• Fog is a cloud near the ground. The different types of fog are radiation fog, advection fog, and steam fog.

Breakdown

Precipitation

Students will be able to:

• Explain how raindrops and snowflakes form.
• Describe how hail increases in size.
• Classify instruments used for measuring precipitation.
• Compare and Contrast sleet and freezing rain.

Summary of Concepts:

• Any form of moisture that falls from a cloud to the ground is precipitation.
• The forms of precipitation are rain, snow, freezing rain, sleet, and hail.
• Precipitation instruments include the rain gauge, the tipping-bucket rain gauge, and radar devices.
• People used to settle mostly in areas with abundant rainfall. But water is now transported to arid regions, making them habitable

Subject:

Weather

Breakdown

Air in Motion

Students will be able to:

• Identify the 6 types of air masses.
• Explain how winds occur.
• Compare and Contrast the 4kinds of fronts that occur when air masses meet.
• Infer differences in baometric pressure.

Summary of Concepts:

• Air masses differ in their origin and temperature.
• Air masses interact at fronts. There are 4 kinds of fronts: Cold, warm, stationary, and occluded .
• Differences in air pressure at the earth's surface produce winds. Winds move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.

Breakdown

Storms

Students will be able to:

• Identify the 3 major types of storms, Descrbe the air movements that prduce thunderstorms.
• Compare and Contrast hurricanes and tornadoes.
• Classify storms that occur in your area or region.

Summary of Concepts:

• Storms involve high winds and rising moist air, which cause precipitation.
• A thunderstorm forms when masses of warm, moist air move rapidly upward.
• A huge, towering cumulonimbus cloud produces heavy rain and lightning.
• A hurricane is a tropical storm with sustained winds of at least 120 km/h.
• A tornado is a whirling, funnel shaped windstorm formed from the turbulence of a thunder storm.

Breakdown

Weather Forecasting

Students will be able to:

• Describe how different weather conditions can be sown on a weather map.
• Discuss how meteorologists forecast the weather.
• Compare and Contrast sources of data about weather conditions.
• Collect data by observing weather conditions.

Summary of Concepts:

• Weather forecasters rely on weather data from a wide area.
• Weather data are collected from weather stations, weather balloons, weather satellites, and weather radar.
• Weather maps have symbols, numbers, and lines sowing weather data at different locations.

Subject:

Climate

Breakdown

Causes of Climate

Students will be able to:

• Distinguish between weather and climate. Describe two ways that the ocean effects climate.
• Compare the temperatures of two different regions in the United States.
• Infer about the factors that influence local climate.

Summary of Concepts:

• Climate is the weather of a region over a long period of time. It is determined mainly by temperature and precipitation.
• Generally temperature decreases as altitude increases. Altitude is distance above sea level.
• Oceans have a moderating effect on temperatures of nearby landmasses.
• The amount of precipitation a place receives depends on prevailing winds and topography.
• A rain shadow is caused when moist air deposits precipitation on a montain ranges windward side leaving the leeward side arid, the air mass have lost it precipatory water vapor.

Breakdown

Climate Classification

Students will be able to:

• Name and describe the 3 main climate zones.
• Compare climate types in the United States to other parts of the world.
• Compare and Contrast some plants and animals that live in various types of climates.
• Classify climates based on climate data

Summary of Concepts:

• The 3 main climate zones are the tropical, temperate, and polar zones.
• Within the climate zones are different climate types, which are classfied by the amount of precipitation.
• The plants and animals in each climate zone are adapted to te conditions in that zone.
• A microclimate is the particular climate of a small area

Breakdown

Climate Change

Students will be able to:

• Explain the effect of El Nino on climates.
• Describe the possible effects of major climate changes.
• Name 3 possible cause of climae change. Predict how a future ice age could affect an area.

Summary of Concepts:

• Global climate changes can have far reaching and dramatic effects.
• Ice ages are periods of worldwide climate change. Periods when the ice sheets retreated are called interglacials.
• El Nino is a change in the normal ocean currents off the coast of South America.
• Past climate changes may have been caused by continental drift, changes in the tilt of the earth's axis, and changes in the radiation given off by the sun.
• Human activity causes change in micro-climates and may produce worldwide climate changes.

Subject:

Mineral and Energy Resources

Breakdown

Mineral Resources

Students will be able to:

• Distinguish between renwable and nonrenewable resources.
• Describe the problems associated with mining and processing ores.
• Compare and Contrast different views on reclamation.
• Make a table showing informatin about 3 types of mining.

Summary of Concepts:

• Nonrenewable resources can't be replaced as hey are used. Renewable resources can be replaced as they are used.
• Minerals are commonly found in deposits called ores. An ore is a mineral rich rock deposit that can be removed from the earth for a profit.
• Ores near the earth's surface are surface mined or open pit mined. Ores deep within the earth are mined underground.
• Retruning a mined site to its former condiion is called reclamation.

Breakdown

Fossil Fuel Resources

Students will be able to:

• Name the 4 stages of coal formation.
• Describe how petroleum and natural gas form.
• Identify the uses of fossil fuels and some problems associated with burning fossil fuels.
• Make a graph showing numerical data about energy sources.

Summary of Concepts:

• Nonrenewable resources can't be replaced as hey are used. Renewable resources can be replaced as they are used.
• Minerals are commonly found in deposits called ores. An ore is a mineral rich rock deposit that can be removed from the earth for a profit.
• Ores near the earth's surface are surface mined or open pit mined. Ores deep within the earth are mined underground.
• Retruning a mined site to its former condiion is called reclamation.

Breakdown

Alternative Energy Resources

Students will be able to:

• List reasons for the increased demand for energy.
• Identify alternative ways of generating energy.
• Compare and Contrast direct and indirect solar power.
• Predict which factors determine the possibility of using alternative ways of generating energy.

Summary of Concepts:

• Fossil fuels are being used up. Alternative ways of generating enrgy are being developed.
• Most alternative energy comes from renewable resources, such as wind water and the sun.

Subject:

Humans and The Environment

Breakdown

Human Ecology

Students will be able to:

• Explain technology and give severl examples.
• Describe the ways people in different societies live.
• Find causes for the rapid increase in the human population.
• Make a table that compares the differences in the 3 types of societies.

Summary of Concepts:

• The culture of a society determines how its people interact with the environment. Cultures vary in their technology.
• The oldest way of living on the earth is practiced by people in hunting and gathering societies.
• Agricultural societies may form permanent settlements. They may grow large enough to support cities.
• Industrial societies have spread across the world. The amount of natural resources used per person is highest in industrial societies.
• The human population of the earth has increased greatly in the last 200 years and continues to increase.

Breakdown

Human Impact

Students will be able to:

• Explain how humans interfere with natural earth cycles.
• Explain the importance of biodiversity.
• Find causes for species extinction.
• Observe the impact of humans on the environment in your community.

Summary of Concepts:

• Human use of natural resources modifies and destroys natural habitats, and changes natural cycles and ecosystems.
• The destruction of natural habitats, pollution, and the changing of ecosystems all reduce biodiversity.
• Pollution of the environment endangers human health.

Breakdown

Environmental Solutions

Students will be able to:

• Describe ways that humans are reducing their impact on the environment.
• Explain what is meant by conservation, preservation, and restoration.
• Predict what will happen to the biosphere during the next 20, 50, 100 years.
• Communication steps that you can take to help protect the environment.

Summary of Concepts:

• People are taking steps to protect the biosphere by making more informed decisions about land use, conserving and preserving natural resources, restoring habitats, controlling pollution, and limiting resource use.
• People can help the environment by reducing, reusing, and recycling.

Subject:

Earth and Moon

Breakdown

Earth in Space

Students will be able to:

• Describe the rotation and revolution of planet Earth.
• Explain how time is measured on Earth.
• Explain how the tilt of Earth on its axis effects life on the planet.
• Make a model of Earth in its orbit around the Sun.

Summary of Concepts:

• Earth completes one rotation on its axis every 24 hours.
• E arth completes one revolution of its orbit of the Sun in one solar year. The tilt of Earth's axis causes seasons.
• Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field which helps protect it from some of the energy of the sun.
• The number of hours of daylight is determined by the solstice and the equinox.
• Earth is divided into time zones that begin at the prime meridian, each time zone is roughly 15 degrees longitude.

Breakdown

Earth’s Moon

Students will be able to:

• Identify 4 features of the moon's surface.
• List some major events in the exploration of the moon.
• Explain how the motion of the moon affects the view of the moon from Earth.
• Infer which theory about the fromation of the moon is the most logical.

Summary of Concepts:

• The moon is Earth's natural satellite. >Features on the surface of the moon include maria, craters, and highlands.
• The moon completes one revolution of the Earth in 27.3 days
• There are may theories about the origin of the moon.
• Apollo 11 mission was the first manned spacecraft to land on the moon.

Breakdown

Earth Moon System

Students will be able to:

• Relate the phases of the moon to its revolution.
• Describe a waxing moon and a waning moon.
• Predict how the distance of the moon effects tides.
• Compare and contrast a lunar eclipse and a solar eclipse.

Summary of Concepts:

• Sunlight reflects off the surface of the moon, creating the luna phases.
• The phases of the moon include the new moon, full moon, quarter moon, and crescent moon.
• B odies in space cast shadows.
• When one planet passes in between the sun and another body, and eclipse occurs.

Subject:

The Solar System

Breakdown

The Sun

Students will be able to:

• Explain how energy is produced in the Sun
• Describe the 3 layers of the sun's atmosphere.
• Explain how sunspots, prominences, and solar flares are related.
• Make a model of the Sun's interior.

Summary of Concepts:

• Nuclear fusion in the sun releases enormous amounts of energy as Hydrogen is fused to form Helium.
• The sun is made of many layers including a core, radiation zone, and a convection zone.
• The sun's atmosphere consists of 3 layers: the photosphere, chromosphere, and the corona.
• Sunspots, Prominences, and solar flares occur in the sun's outer layers.
• The sun is the single most prominent source of energy for nearly all living things on Earth.

Breakdown

Planets in Our system

Students will be able to:

• Describe the Theory of the formation of the solar system.
• Explain how the planets move around the Sun.
• Compare and Contrast the inner planets from the ourter planets.
• Explain why Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
• Hypothesize which of the planets, besides Earth, could possibly have living things.

Summary of Concepts:

• The solar system formed from a swirling cloud of gas and dust.
• The four inner planets are rocky planets with metal cores.
• Except for Pluto, the five outer planets are large balls of gas with solid liquid cores and many moons.
• The planets revolve around the sun in slghtly elliptical orbits, the result of a balance between inertia and gravity.

Breakdown

Vagrant Members of our System

Students will be able to:

• Locate, on a model or diagram of the planets, the asteroid belt.
• Compare meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites.
• Describe the orbits of the comets.
• Predict how a comet will change over time as it transits the solar system.

Summary of Concepts:

• Asteroids are bodies of rock and metal too small and irregular in shape to be considered as planets, that orbit the sun.
• Meteoroids are chunks of rock or metal smaller than asteroids. They become meteors if they enter Earth's atmosphere, and meteorites if they reach the Earth's surface.
• Comets are icy objects with very extreme elliptical orbits that periodically travel close to the sun.

Subject:

Stars and Galaxies

Breakdown
Studying the Stars

Students will be able to:

• Describe the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Explain how reflecting and refracting telescopes work.
• Compare and contrast optical telescopes to spectroscopes.
• Infer the relationship between the frequency of electromagnetic waves and their wavelength.

Summary of Concepts:

• Stars produce many different types of electromagnetic wave energy, including visible light, radiowaves, and x-rays.
• Optical telescopes use visible light to form images of distant objects.
• Spectroscopes reveal a star's composition by analyzing the makeup of its visible light.

Breakdown

Star Characteristics

Students will be able to:

• Relate the temperature of a Star to its color.
• Explain how measurements of parallax are used to measure a star's distance from Earth.
• Contrast absolute magnitude and apparent magnitude.
• Interpret data from the H-R diagram.

Summary of Concepts:

• The color of a star is related to its temperature.
• By measuring a stars apparent change of position, or parallax, its distance from Earth can be calculated.
• A star's absolute magnitude and distance from Earth determine its apparent magnitude.
• Stars are classified into 4 groups depending on their location on the H-R diagram

Breakdown

Life Cycle of Stars

Students will be able to:

• Explain ow stars come into being.
• Describe the stages of a star's life cycle.
• C ontrast the different wyas in which high mass and low mass stars end their life cycles.
• Predict what will happen for the rest of the sun's life cycle.

Summary of Concepts:

• Stars come into being in nebulae.
• A low mass star goes through the stages of main sequence star, red giant, white dwarf, and black dwarf.
• A high mass star goes through the stages of main sequence star, super giant, supernova, and neutron star or black hole.

Breakdown

Galaxies and Star Groups

Students will be able to:

• Describe 4 tyes of galaxies.
• Explain what a constellatin is and how it differs froma galaxy or star cluster.
• Explain how scientists know the universe is expanding.
• Predict how the constellations will look in the distant future.

Summary of Concepts:

• Galaxies are classified into four types based on shape.
• Within galaxies, stars form star clusters and exist as binary stars.
• To an observer on Earth, stars form patterns called constellations.