Chemistry 1 and 2
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Semester I
Matter and Energy
Intensive Properties of Matter (1 week)
- observe and describe properties in many types of matter in a laboratory/field setting, as well as in pictures, videos, and animations.
- explore in a laboratory setting and describe some identifying properties such as color, luster, melting point, boiling point, solubility in water, reactivity with acid, and flammability
- classify commonly encountered, real-world examples of intensive physical and chemical properties, such as color, state of matter at room temperature, texture, luster, tendency to tarnish or corrode, and the potential to burn - or flammability.
- Lab: Exploring Intensive Physical and Chemical Properties
Matter and Energy
Measuring Matter (1 week)
- measure and determine both intensive and extensive properties including boiling point, melting point, mass, volume, and density.
- determine density of liquids and solids by performing lab investigations using appropriate laboratory equipment such as beakers, rulers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, and balances.
- use the International System (SI) of measurement in the laboratory.
- select appropriate equipment instead of always using teacher selected equipment.
- determine the mass, the volume, and the density of many sizes of one pure substance to recognize that mass and volume change, but density is constant for a pure substance, and thereby intensive.
- identify density, melting point, and boiling point as properties that can be used to identify an unknown pure substance.
- Lab: Density Determination
Matter and Energy
Modeling States of Matter (1 week)
- draw particle models of solids, liquids, and gases, which represent the structure, shape, and volume of the sample of matter inside the container.
- match the state of matter with the correct particle model or verbal description.
- correctly match representations/descriptions of physical changes in matter with terms such as compression, expansion, melting, boiling, etc.
- describe and answer questions about the relative compressibility, structure and shape of the states of matter in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.
- rank the states of matter in order or compressibility.
- describe atoms and molecules in constant motion, in all states of matter.
- Online simulations such as PhET
Matter and Energy
Energy and Changes in Matter (2 weeks)
- analyze a graph of temperature vs. time to determine whether a process is endothermic or exothermic.
- describe and answer questions about the law of conservation of energy for energy transformations within one system.
- identify chemical energy as a form of potential energy.
- identify thermal energy as a form of kinetic energy.
- describe and answer questions about the law of conservation of energy in thermal energy transfer processes from one system to another.
- describe and answer questions about calorimetry as a laboratory process.
- measure the mass and the change in temperature that occurs in two samples of matter at different temperatures, when they are brought together to allow heat transfer by conduction.
- calculate specific heat capacity of an unknown metal.
- demonstrate an understanding of energy and its forms by researching and reporting.
- label pictures and diagrams and match verbal and pictorial descriptions of energy, with labels of types of energy.
- explore chemical and physical processes in the laboratory using tools such as thermometers, Styrofoam cups, and graduated cylinders.
- label warming and cooling curves that show phase changes.
- recognize that during phase changes, temperature, and thus average kinetic energy remains constant and chemical potential energy changes, and that average inter-particle distance changes.
- show work, using tools such as paper, pencil, and a calculator as they solve problems.
- calculate all variables in the equation q = mCpΔT, where q is heat, m is mass, Cp is specific heat capacity, and ΔT is change in temperature.
- Vernier Lab: Endothermic and Exothermic Chemical Reactions
- Vernier Lab: Melting and Freezing Water
- Lab: Specific Heat of a Metal
Matter and Energy
Types of Matter - Pure Substances, Mixtures, and Solution Properties (2 weeks)
- match pictures or word descriptions of any sample of matter with a category: mixture or pure substance.
- combine or separate matter by mixing, dissolving, decanting, evaporating, heating, sifting, filtering, etc. Based on observations, they should identify the resulting matter as mixed or pure.
- investigate physical properties of matter such as solubility in water, particle size, melting and boiling points to determine if the matter can be separated by physical changes, or not. Use the data gathered to design a separation scheme for the matter sample if it can be separated. A good sample to work with is a mixture of sand, salt, and iron.
- classify a representation of matter as element, compound, or mixture.
- explore substances that do and do not dissolve in water.
- make predictions about substances' solubilities in water based on data.
- use a conductivity meter to determine if a solution conducts electricity, and whether it is a relatively good conductor or a weak conductor. Based on a description of the results, classify the solution as a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte, or a nonelectrolyte.
- based on a description of the behavior of a solution and/or the ratios present in the solution, classify it as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated.
- in the laboratory, investigate factors that influence solid and gas solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area.
- predict how a change in temperature will affect the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
- predict how a change in temperature will affect the rate of dissolution of a solid in a liquid.
- predict how a change in surface area will affect the rate of dissolution of a solid in a liquid.
- predict how a change in surface area will affect the solubility of solid in liquid.
- Lab/Demo: Design and Implement the Separation of a Mixture
- Lab/Demo: Electrolysis of Water to Make Hydrogen and Oxygen
- Lab: Discovering Some Solubility Guidelines for Water
- Lab: Factors which Affect Solubility and Rate of Dissolution
- Vernier Lab: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Periodic Table (2 weeks)
- recall the modern periodic law states that properties of the elements vary periodically with increasing atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus.
- recall and answer questions about the fact that the periodic table was arranged by Mendeleev in order of increasing atomic mass, and later arranged in order of increasing atomic number, once the proton and neutron were discovered.
- use their own senses, as well as conductivity meters and dilute acids (ex. HCl) to investigate the physical and chemical properties of elements such as aluminum, silver, sulfur, helium, silicon, carbon, and zinc in a laboratory setting.
- sort elements by property and justify decisions.
- use journals, notebooks, oral reports, and conversations to explain their own observations and how they might sort the elements according to their properties.
- explore the physical and chemical properties of elements that are either unsafe or not easily obtained via pictures, animations, simulations, videos, interactive periodic tables, etc.
- observe and explore physical properties such as luster, color, malleability, and conductivity of safe element samples in a laboratory setting.
- observe and explore chemical properties such as reactivity with acids.
- observe and explore properties such as flammability and explosiveness by way of multiple media or teacher demonstrations.
- research and report on Mendeleev's and others' periodic tables. Mendeleev's use of atomic mass to sequence elements, instead of atomic number, should be emphasized.
- practice matching an element with the name of its chemical family.
- research and report on characteristics of chemical families.
- write descriptions and list characteristics of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals. They should research and report on properties such as density, luster, malleability, standard state of matter, conductivity, brittleness, color, and reactivity.
- draw horizontal and vertical arrows on the periodic table in order to label trends in properties of elements within periods and groups.
- explain in written or verbal form the general trends observed within periods and groups. For example, first ionization energy increases from left to right within a period because the effective nuclear charge is increasing. Atomic radius increases down a group because new energy levels are added and the valence electrons are shielded from the nucleus.
- locate on the periodic table and identify the chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals.
- compare the densities of the alkali metal to those of the alkaline Earth and transition metals, and the noble gases.
- identify the most and least chemically reactive families of elements.
- describe the appearance of the Alkali metals.
- identify the most reactive metal family as the alkali metals, and the most reactive nonmetal family as the halogens.
- identify and answer questions about a trend within a group or within a period from a graph of properties including atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy
- predict a property of an element based on the properties of nearby elements.
- Lab: Explore Element Properties
- Vernier Lab: Use Vernier Graphical Analysis or Logger Pro to Explore Element Data
Atomic Theory and Electrons (4 weeks)
- research and report on the experimental designs and conclusions reached by Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr in their explorations of atomic properties. Dalton's postulates should be included in the background research, as it laid a foundation for later explorations.
- create or use replicas or models (examples: web applets, animations, black box models, etc.) to better understand the nature of the equipment used by Thomson and Rutherford.
- describe the difference between atomic number, mass number, and average atomic mass.
- show work as they calculate average atomic mass of an element using isotopic composition.
- observe and describe the visible emission spectrum from a hydrogen gas lamp through a prism, or diffraction grating and correlate the lines in the visible spectrum to "jumps" in energy the electron in hydrogen can make when excited. This was the foundation of Bohr's model for hydrogen
- research and report on regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and common uses of various types of radiation.
- sequence types of radiation in order of energy, frequency, and wavelength.
- use equipment such as rubber bands or springs, online oscilloscopes, or other applets to explore the relationship between energy, frequency, and wavelength.
- identify and explain direct and inverse relationships.
- correlate the energy of radiation with its uses and effects.
- show work as they calculate either frequency or energy given the other.
- show work as they calculate either frequency or wavelength given the other.
- identify sublevel blocks and group numbers on the periodic table in order to determine the arrangement of electrons in an element.
- match and write out full electron configurations as well as noble-gas configurations of representative elements.
- draw Lewis valence electron dot structures, based on the location on the PT. Students should practice matching a Lewis dot diagram with a symbolic representation of an unknown element, with an element on the periodic table.
- Lab/Demo: Flame Tests, Spectroscopy, and the Bohr Model of Atom - using hydrogen lamp and a power supply
Chemical Bonding (5 weeks)
- distinguish between an ionic and covalent compound given a formula.
- write chemical formulas by using symbols and subscripts to indicate the ratio of elements in a compound, using IUPAC naming rules, and a flowchart if desired.
- name compounds by fill-in-the-blank, matching, and multiple-choice. They might also say out loud the names of compounds when given the formulas.
- draw with paper and pencil, or computer software, two-dimensional representations of simple covalent and ionic compounds using element symbols, dashes, and dots according to the rules of drawing Lewis dot structures. They should label lone pairs and bonded pairs of electrons, when appropriate.
- represent ionic compounds with symbols, dots, and ion charges, but no dashes to represent ionic bonds. Students should represent covalent compounds with symbols, dots, and dashes to connect atoms. The dashes represent covalent bonds, which can be single, double, or triple.
- classify a pictured molecule as any of the following molecular shapes: linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, and bent.
- correlate properties such as m.p. and solubility in water to type of intermolecular force involved.
- describe by writing, drawing, and labeling water's unique properties such as its relatively high boiling point, its ability to dissolve other substances, its bent molecular structure, its polarity, surface tension, hydrogen bonding, and high specific heat capacity.
- write about and otherwise communicate what is known about metallic properties and the accepted explanations for those properties. Students could watch and explore, or even create animations that illustrate the way ions and valence electrons rearrange during deformations such as hammering and stretching. They could also explore or create animations that help them to understand and explain how energy is conducted through metals.
- Hands-On: Molecular Modeling
- Lab: Exploring Unique Properties of Water
- Lab: Properties and Bonding - Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic
The Mole and Chemical Composition (2 weeks)
- communicate the definition of the mole both verbally and graphically using appropriate tools.
- create models that define the mole, using tools such as posters, whiteboards, chart paper, digital slides, animations, graphic organizers, paper and pencil, etc.
- define and use the mole concept both in terms of its counted value of 6.02 x 1023 particles and its mass equivalent, molar mass. Students communicating ideas about the magnitude of the mole as a counted number is important in the development of the concept of the mole. Communicating an understanding of the concept of equivalent mass, and the fact that it varies by substance, is also critical.
- show work in solving mole conversion problems by using tools such as paper and pencil, scientific calculators, conversion cards, graphic organizers, and dimensional analysis.
- show work in solving mole-to-particle conversions and mass-to-particle conversions with paper and pencil, scientific calculators, conversion cards, graphic organizers, and dimensional analysis.
- calculate the number of particles, given the number of moles.
- calculate the number of moles given the number of particles.
- show work in solving mole-to-mass conversions and mass-to-mole conversions with dimensional analysis.
- calculate the number of grams, given the number of moles.
- calculate the number of moles given the number of grams in a sample.
- calculate the percent by mass of any compound, given its empirical or molecular formula.
- determine the empirical formula of a compound from its molecular formula.
- determine the molecular formula for a compound, given its empirical formula and molar mass.
- Demo/Lab: Molar Mass
- Lab: % Water in Bubble Gum
- Lab: % Water in a Hydrate
- Lab: Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound
Conservation of Mass & Energy in Chemical Reactions (6-8 weeks)
- balance chemical equations using models, and paper and pencil.
- observe chemical reactions by performing them in a laboratory setting using equipment such as spot plates, dropping pipets, burets, and indicators.
- use pattern recognition to categorize chemical reactions.
- write and balance equations representing acid- base, precipitation, and oxidation-reduction reactions - such as single replacements, combustions, and some syntheses and decompositions.
- determine if a reaction is a REDOX reaction or not by checking oxidation states of all elements in the equation. If the reaction is not a REDOX reaction, and it is a double replacement, they should be able to determine whether it is an acid-base or a precipitation reaction, using the water-solubility guidelines and limited knowledge of acid-base neutralization patterns.
- calculate theoretical yield by mass, using a balanced equation and dimensional analysis.
- determine actual yield of a chemical reaction in a laboratory setting.
- calculate % yield by comparing actual and theoretical yields. (actual/theoretical) x 100
- describe the concept of limiting reactants.
- calculate to determine which reagent is limiting and which is in excess.
- use dimensional analysis to calculate energy released or absorbed for a given amount of reactant, given the enthalpy - ?H (kJ/mol) - for the reactant.
- Lab: Classifying Chemical Reactions
- Lab: Stoichiometry of the Decomposition of Baking Soda and Percent Yield
- Lab: Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Baking Soda or Washing Soda with Vinegar
- Lab: Acid-Base Titration Using an Indicator for a Neutralization Reaction
- Lab: Back Titration of Excess Acid in a Reaction with Limited Antacid
Gas Laws (3 weeks)
- match graphs representing the relationship between two variables in an ideal gas, and the gas law which describes the relationship.
- write and recognize a correct verbal description of the relationship that exists between two or more variables in an ideal gas.
- match an equation for a gas law to the name of the gas law.
- calculate volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature of an ideal gas.
- calculate gas volume or other quantities for chemical reactions using the conversion factor: 22.4L per 1 mole gas @STP.
- Vernier Lab: Discovering Boyle's Law
- Lab: Charles' Law
- Lab: Molar Volume of a Gas @ STP (utilizes Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures and the combined gas laws)
- Simulations: PhET
Molarity of Solutions (1 week)
- calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity, M(mol/l).
- perform dilutions in a laboratory setting using graphing calculators, volumetric flasks, graduated cylinders, pipets, and colorful solutions.
- calculate the dilutions of solutions using molarity and the formula M1V1 = M2V2.
- Vernier Lab: Beer's Law
Acids and Bases (2-3 weeks)
- define or match definitions for an acid, a base, and a salt.
- categorize formulas as acid, base, or salt.
- list some properties of acids and bases.
- define and match definitions of Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases.
- determine whether a base is an Arrhenius base or a Bronsted-Lowry base, based on its formula, such as NaOH and NH3.
- predict products and write balanced equations for acid-base reactions that form water, given only the reactants.
- correlate numbers on the pH scale to common household items such as cola, milk, and baking soda.
- build a visual pH scale using indicators such as purple cabbage juice.
- measure pH with a pH sensor.
- calculate the pH of a solution using the hydrogen ion concentration using the formula pH = -log[H+].
- Vernier Lab: Household Acids and Bases
Nuclear Processes and Energy (1-2 weeks)
- describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of penetrating power, relative mass, charge, and danger.
- predict products by balancing nuclear equations involving alpha and beta decay, using paper and pencil and the periodic table.
- research and report on fission and fusion reactions.
- recognize a fission and a fusion reaction by description or illustration.
- describe careers in nuclear medicine and energy
- describe danger and waste disposal issues, and the benefits of nuclear energy.
- Vernier Lab: Alpha and Beta Source ID